Cronin and MacLaren (2018) reviewed the evolving definitions of Open Educational Practices (OEP) in the academic literature over the past 14 years. They identified four theoretical conceptualisations of OEP prevalent in the literature, from 3 European OER/OEP projects, and one body of research from an academic unit, as summarized in the Table below:
|OLCOS Project||OPAL Initiative||UKOER Programme||CILT Research|
“Practices that involve students in active, constructive engagement with content, tools, and services in the learning process, and promote learners’ self-manage-
Ment,creavity, and working in teams”
“Practices which support the (re)use and production of OER through institutional policies, promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path”
(Andrade et al., 2011)
1) OER production, management, use, and reuse; 2) open/public pedagogies;
3) open learning;
4) open scholarship;
5) open sharing of teaching ideas;
6) use of open technologies
(Beetham et al., 2012)
5 dimensions of openness:
Note* Adapted from Cronin & MacLaren (2018).
The authors posit that all four conceptualizations focus on both OER and collaborative pedagogical practices as a means of transforming education. Of these, the UKOER and CILT conceptualizations of OEP are the most expansive, with a broad view of scholarship, including research and teaching, the potential decoupling of OER and OEP, the importance of context in OEP use, and the need for inclusion of diversity and equity perspectives.
Cronin and MacLaren (2018) consider Open Pedagogy to be a subset of OEP focused on teaching and learning that embodies a critical approach to pedagogy and emphasizes context.
Read examples of OEP at course and program levels in the Open Pedagogy Notebook. Contributions include descriptions of assignments, textbooks, and student perspectives.
Andrade, A., Caine, A., Carneiro, R., Conole, G., Ehlers, U.D., Holmberg, C., Kairamo, A.-K., Koskinen, T., Kretschmer, T., Moe-Pryce, N., Mundin, P., Nozes, J., Reinhardt, R., Richter, T., Silva, G. (2011). Beyond OER: Shifting focus from Resources to Practice. Open Education Quality Initiative. Retrieved from http://duepublico.uni-duisburg-essen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-25907/OPALReport2011_Beyond_OER.pdf
Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open practices: Briefing paper. JISC. Retrieved from https://oersynth.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/58444186/Open%20Practices%20 briefing%20paper.pdf
Cronin, C. & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of the theoretical and empirical literature in Open Educational Practices. Open Praxis, 10(2), pp.127-143. Retrieved from https://www.openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/825/436
Geser, G. (2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources: OLCOS Roadmap 2012 (p. 150). Salzburg, Austria: Salzburg Research / EduMedia Group. Retrieved from https://www.olcos.org/english/roadmap/
Hodgkinson-Williams, C. (2014). Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, open textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South. In 2nd Regional Symposium on Open Educational Resources: Beyond Advocacy, Research and Policy. Penang, Malaysia. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/handle/11427/1188