Planning, implementing and maintaining experiential learning requires reflection, collaboration, and resources.
If you are new to experiential learning the following sources and documents can help you to become familiar with the frameworks:
- Kolb and Kolb's book offers a succinct and practical guide to teaching in higher education. The book is a culmination of their more than 30 years as practitioners of experiential learning theory. You will find information about the genus of experiential education, tips of the trade, and a variety of applications that will enhance your teaching practice.
- Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2017). The experiential educator: Principles and practices of experiential learning. Experience-based learning systems.
- McRae, Pretti and Church's white paper is an accessible guide to understanding how to measure the quality of work-integrated learning (WIL). As the cost of education rises and as more people participate in higher education, parents and students alike are showing an increased interest in work-integrated learning. Parents and students see WIL as an opportunity to differentiate themselves as they apply for work, graduate school, and professional credentials. Additionally, research funding is increasingly being tied to community partnerships. Quality Work-integrated learning is an excellent opportunity to engage with your community at many levels. You can learn more by referring to the written document or a presentation recently given in May 2019.
- McRae, N., Pretti, T.J., and Church, D., (2019). Work-Integrated Learning Quality Framework, AAA. Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-advancement-co-operative-education/sites/ca.centre-advancement-co-operative-education/files/uploads/files/wil_quality_framework_-_aaa_-_for_posting.pdf
- A Quality Framework for Work-Integrated Learning (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dLzTeB3oVE&t=30s
- For information about the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities perspective on how experiential learning relates to our current activities you can refer to the Career Ready Fund website for updates: http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/programs/careerreadyfund.html
- For information about Experiential Education at the University of Windsor you can learn more by:
- referring to UWindsor's Career Development and Experiential Learning website.
- connecting with the Experiential Learning Development Officer for FAHSS (Tim Brunet, ext. 2025, firstname.lastname@example.org).
- There are two main organizations which offer workshops, resources, frameworks, best practices and nomenclatures:
- Co-operative Education and Work-Integrated Learning Canada (CEWIL)
- Although the National Society for Experiential Education is tailored to the United States, a number of UWindsor faculty and staff are engaged with the organization (attending workshops and conferences) to learn more about best practices for experiential education.
- Provost’s Task Force on Experiential Learning. Experiential Education: A path towards improving the student experience. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/provost/316/experiential-education-path-towards-...
Business Higher Education Roundtable (2016). Taking the Pulse of Work-Integrated Learning in Canada. Retrieved from http://bher.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/BHER-Academica-report-full.pdf
Canadian Association for Co-operative Education (2000). Co-operative Education Manual: A Guide to Planning and Implementing Co-operative Education Programs in Post-Secondary Institutions. Retrieved from http://www.cafce.ca/_Library/_documents/coopmanual.pdf
Canadian Chamber of Commerce. (2012). Skills development discussion paper. Ottawa: Canadian Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from http://sudburychamber.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/1203SkillsDevelopmentDiscussionPaper.pdf
CCL (Canadian Council on Learning). (2008). Lessons in learning: The benefits of experiential learning. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Learning. Retrieved from http://en.copian.ca/library/research/ccl/benefits_learning/benefits_learning.pdf
Sattler, P., Wiggers, R., & Arnold, C. H. (2011). Combining workplace training with postsecondary education: The spectrum of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) opportunities from apprenticeship to experiential learning. Canadian Apprenticeship Journal.
Bateman, A. (2018). How to Develop your Career Plan. Retrieved from https://www.lynda.com/Business-Skills-tutorials/How-Develop-your-Career-Plan/728375-2.html
Leung, S. A. (2008). The big five career theories. In International handbook of career guidance (pp. 115-132). Springer, Dordrecht.
Schinkten, O. (2018). Learning LinkedIn for Students. Retrieved from https://www.lynda.com/LinkedIn-tutorials/Learning-LinkedIn-Students/672245-2.html?srchtrk=index%3a1%0alinktypeid%3a2%0aq%3alinkedin+for+students%0apage%3a1%0as%3arelevance%0asa%3atrue%0aproducttypeid%3a2 You will need to login to Lynda.com using your UWin ID – this resource is available to all faculty, staff and students.
University of Windsor. Experience Maps. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/cces/experiencemaps
University of Windsor. Career Development Guide. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/career-development-experiential/sites/uwindsor.ca.career-development-experiential/files/uofw_careerservicescatalogue_fall2018_web_0.pdf
"The Education Policy Research Initiative (EPRI) is a national research organization based at the University of Ottawa. EPRI engages in research aimed at informing policy discussions focused on education, skills and the labour market."
Workforce Windsor Essex provides regional Labour Market Information. They are also available for contract work if you are looking to get customized information about the labour market. For more information see https://www.workforcewindsoressex.com/lmi/
Marginson, Simon. (2017). Limitations of human capital theory, Studies in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2017.1359823
Raffe, David. (2008). The concept of transition system, Journal of Education and Work, 21:4, 277-296, DOI: 10.1080/13639080802360952
University of Windsor. (2017). University of Windsor Community Consultations Winter 2017. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/president/366/community-consultation-report
Wheelahan, Leesa. (2015). The future of Australian vocational education qualifications depends on a new social settlement, Journal of Education and Work, 28:2, 126-146, DOI: 10.1080/13639080.2014.1001333
Young, M. (2003). Comparing approaches to the role of qualifications in the promotion of lifelong learning. European Journal of Education, 38(2), 199-211.
Council of Ontario Universities (2014). Bringing Life to Learning at Ontario Universities. Retrieved from http://cou.on.ca/reports/bringing-life-to-learning/.
HEQCO. (2016). A Practical Guide for Work-integrated Learning: Effective practices to enhance the educational quality of structured work experiences offered through colleges and universities. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/HEQCO_WIL_Guide_ENG_ACC.pdf
MAESD. (n.d.). MAESD’s Guiding Principles for Experiential Learning. Retrieved from https://www.queensu.ca/experientiallearninghub/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.qelhwww/files/files/A04%20EL%20-%20Guiding%20Priciples%20FINAL%20EN.pdf
MTCU (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities). (2012). Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge. (205kB PDF). Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.
Peters, Julie, Academica Group Inc. (2012). Faculty Experiences with and Perceptions of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in the Ontario Postsecondary Sector. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/Faculty-Experiences-with-and-Perceptions-of-Work-Integrated-Learning-WIL-in-the-Ontario-Postsecondary-Sector.aspx
Premier’s Highly Skilled Workforce Expert Panel. (2016, June). Building the workforce of tomorrow: A shared responsibility. Retrieved from https://files.ontario.ca/hsw_rev_engaoda_webfinal_july6.pdf
R. A. Malatest & Associates Ltd. (2018). Barriers to Work-integrated Learning Opportunities. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Formatted_Barriers%20to%20WIL_FINAL.pdf
Sattler, P. (2011). Work-Integrated Learning in Ontario’s postsecondary sector. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/Work-Integrated-Learning-in-Ontario-s-Postsecondary-Sector-The-Pathways-of-Recent-College-and-University-Graduates-.aspx.
Sattler, P. & Peters, J. (2012). Work-integrated learning and post-secondary graduates: The perspective of Ontario Employers. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/Work-Integrated-Learning-and-Postsecondary-Graduates-The-Perspective-of-Ontario-Employers.aspx.
Stirling, A., Kerr, G., Banwell, J., MacPherson, E., Bandealy, A., & Battaglia, A. (2014). What is an internship? Inventory and analysis of “internship” opportunities available to post-secondary students in Ontario. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/What-is-an-internship-An-inventory-and-analysis-of-internship-opportunities-available-to-Ontario-postsecondary-students.aspx
Stirling, A., Kerr, G, Banwell, J., MacPherson, E, & Heron, A. (2016). A Practical Guide for Work-Integrated Learning: Effective Practices to Enhance the Educational Quality of Structured Work Experiences Offered through Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/A-Practical-Guide-for-Work-integrated-Learning.aspx von Treuer, K., Sturre, V., Keele, S., & McLeod, J. (2011). An integrated model for the evaluation of work placements. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 195-204.
Turcotte, J.F., Nichols, L., Philipps, L. (2016) Maximizing Opportunity, Mitigating Risk: Aligning Law, Policy and Practice to Strengthen Work-Integrated Learning in Ontario (1013 kB PDF). Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
Ash, S. L., & Clayton, P. H. (2004). The articulated learning: an approach to reflection and assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 29(2), 137-154.
Ash, S. L., & Clayton, P. H. (2009). Generating, deepening, and documenting learning: the power of critical reflection in applied learning. Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education, 1, 25-48.
Canning, N. & Callan, S. (2010). Heutagogy: Spirals of reflection to empower learners in higher education. Reflective Practice, 11(1), 71-82.
Cavilla, D. (2017). The Effects of Student Reflection on Academic Performance and Motivation. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017733790
Duan N. & H. Schmidt. (2011). Writing to learn: can reflection journals be used to promote self-reflection and learning? Higher Education Research & Development, 30(4): 519-532.
Eyler, J. (2001). Creating your reflection map. New Directions for Higher Education, 114, 35-43. DOI: 10.1002/he.11
Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115-125.
Fook, J., & Gardner, F. (2007). Practicing critical reflection: a resource handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Haddara, M., & Skanes, H. (2007). A reflection on cooperative education: From experience to experiential learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 67-76.
Kember, D., Mckay, J., Sinclair, K., & Wong, K., Y. (2008). A four-category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 (4), 369-379.
Mezirow, J., & Associates. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: a guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Nolan, A. (2008). Encouraging the reflection process in undergraduate teachers using guided reflection. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(1), 31-36.
Ogilvie, A., & Douglas, K. (2007). Online role plays and the virtual placement: aiding reflection in work-integrated learning. Proceedings, ASCILITE, Singapore
Russell, T. (1993). Reflection-in-Action and the Development of Professional Expertise Teacher Education Quarterly 20(1), 51-62 Published by: Caddo Gap Press Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23475150
Russell, T & Munby, H Eds. (1992). Teachers and teaching: from classroom to reflection. London ; New York: Falmer Press.
Sterling, A., Kerr, G, Banwell, J., MacPherson, E., Heron, A. (2016). A Practical Guide for Work Integrated Learning: Effective practices to enhance the educational quality of structured work experiences offered through colleges and universities. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/HEQCO_WIL_Guide_ENG_ACC.pdf (pages 65 - 86).
Wong, K., Kember, D., Chung, L., & Yan, L. (1995). Assessing the level of student reflection from reflective journals. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 48-57.
Gooblar, David. (2017). Your Syllabus Doesn't Have to Look like a Contract. Chronicle of Higher Education, 63(43), B1-B2.
Ludy, M., Brackenbury, T., Folkins, J. W., Peet, S. H., Langendorfer, S. J., & Beining, K. (2016). Student impressions of syllabus design: Engaging versus contractual syllabus. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 1-25. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ledproxy2.uwindsor.ca/docview/1895970735?accountid=14789
University of Ottawa. uoSyllabus User Guide. Retrieved from https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/uosyllabus-en
Brunet, Timothy A.; Shaban, Hassan; and Gonçalves, Stephanie. (2020). The Capability Approach: A Proposed Framework for Experiential Learning in The Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences.. 2020 HDCA Conference – Online (Auckland, NZ). https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/ctlpub/7
Pugliese, T., Bolton, T., Jones, G., Roma, G., Cipkar, S., Rabie, R. (2015). Evaluating the Effects of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Mentor Program. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
Provost’s Task Force on Experiential Learning. Experiential Education: A path towards improving the student experience. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/provost/316/experiential-education-path-towards-improving-student-experience
University of Windsor. (2017). University of Windsor consultation reports: It takes a team to build a future. Retrieved from https://www.uwindsor.ca/provost/367/community-consultation-report
"The Journal of Experiential Education (JEE) is an international, peer-reviewed journal publishing refereed articles on experiential education in diverse contexts. The JEE provides a forum for the empirical and theoretical study of issues concerning experiential learning, program management and policies, educational, developmental, and health outcomes, teaching and facilitation, and research methodology. The JEE is a publication of the Association for Experiential Education. This journal is a member of COPE". This journal is available through the Leddy Library.
"The Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships no longer accepts submissions nor does it publish new issues. Recognizing the legacy that all contributors have left through their scholarship and research, CEIA is committed to protecting the stability and integrity of the archives and preserving open access to all for the future. CEIA invites you to scan our archives, read over 50 years of scholarly research articles and gain insights from colleagues. You may still access those archives through the Work Integrated Learning Community Support & Research Portal."
"The International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning (IJWIL) publishes peer-reviewed original research and topical issues dealing with Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). IJWIL was formerly called the Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education.
In this Journal, WIL is defined as "an educational approach that uses relevant work-based experiences to allow students to integrate theory with the meaningful practice of work as an intentional component of the curriculum". Examples of practice include work placements, internships, practicum, cooperative education (Co-op), work-related projects/competitions, service learning, entrepreneurships, student-led enterprise, simulations (including virtual WIL), etc. WIL is related to, but not the same as, the fields of experiential learning, work-based learning, and vocational education and training."
Berquist, B., Moore, K., & Milano, J. (Eds). (2018). International internships: missions, methods & models; a collection of papers from the Global Internship Conference. Academic Internship Council.
Kendall, J. C. (1986). Strengthening Experiential Education within Your Institution. Retrieved from https://nsee.memberclicks.net/assets/docs/strengthening.pdf
Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2013). The Kolb Learning Style Inventory 4.0: A comprehensive guide to the theory, psychometrics, research on validity and educational applications. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Kolb/publication/303446688_The_Kolb_Learning_Style_Inventory_40_Guide_to_Theory_Psychometrics_Research_Applications/links/57437c4c08ae9f741b3a1a58/The-Kolb-Learning-Style-Inventory-40-Guide-to-Theory-Psychometrics-Research-Applications.pdf
True, M. (2018). Starting an Internship Program (9 Ed.). Retrieved from http://globalinternshipconference.com/sites/default/files/images/Starting%20An%20Internship%20Program-9th%20Edition.pdf
The Capabilities Approach
Applying an experiential learning approach in Higher Education requires institutions, professors and students to actively consider what experiential learning will do for the people involved. Using the Capabilities Approach (developed initially by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen and later Martha Nussbaum) to understand and analyze the outcomes will help frame your educational pursuits with a developmental approach. Two key documents explain the approach as it relates to the development and higher education.
Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating capabilities. Harvard University Press.
Walker, M., & McLean, M. (2013). Professional education, capabilities and the public good: The role of universities in promoting human development. Routledge.
Walker, M. and Wilson-Strydom, M. (eds) (2017) Socially Just Pedagogies, Capabilities and
Quality in Higher Education (New York, Palgrave). [link.springer.com/book/10.1057/978-1-
Walker, M. and Fongwa, S. (2017) Universities, Employability and Human Development (New
York, Palgrave) [link.springer.com/book/10.1057/978-1-137-58452-6]
Reconsider the traditional style of teaching (lecture, multiple choice, essay, multiple choice):
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed.). New York: Continuum.