The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) involves routing a fleet of vehicles while minimizing logistics cost and improving customer experience and satisfaction; that could include vehicles travel time, distances traveled, number of vehicles used in the first place, to name a few. VRP includes the significant number of constraints that should be considered. such as the number of vehicles, capacities of vehicles, time windows of stores, types of goods, splits deliveries, human resources, and traffic and road conditions.
Because of environmental reasons and climate change, developed countries have taken measures to increase the use of electric vehicles. Countries, such as France, have ambitious targets of shifting completely to pure-electric vehicles by the year 2040. The limited battery capacities make the situation necessary for these vehicles to visit recharging stations during delivery tours, which have to be considered in the route planning to avoid inefficient vehicle routes with long length. The electric VRP with time windows and recharging stations bring this possibility to electronic vehicle for recharging at any of the available stations using an appropriate recharging scheme. Additionally, the most important constraints in real-world logistics that should be considered are limited vehicle load capacities as well as customer time windows.